Studio equipment can be separated into three main categories. Stands and adapters, light modifiers and reflectors and umbrellas.
Stands and Adapters:
This group consists of essential peripherals that can assist a photographer perform a shoot. These range from tripod stands holding up lights, backgrounds for reflecting light and shadows and creating interest behind the object. Sync leads, hot shoe adapters and radio triggers are used for enabling remote activation of external light sources and other cameras.
Modifiers are used to change the nature of the environment to be photographed, this is achieved with various methods such as reflection, refraction, shrouding and filtering the light. Lighting modifiers can be broken down into three main sub groups such as hoods, reflectors and diffusers that control and direct the light. The snoot and barn doors direct the light by shuttering or flagging it. Flash head and beauty dishes are reflectors that bounce light towards the subject for a more radiant complexion or glow. Finally soft boxes being diffusers soften the light to take away its harshness, creating a gradient to the light.
Reflectors and Umbrellas:
Reflectors and umbrellas diffuse and reflect the light and can be used with natural or artificial light sources. Reflectors also come in varying sizes and forms. The focal distance can be changed via the length of the central rod, which can alter the reflected light from a spot to a diffused ring due to the concave shape of the umbrella.